The kingdoms of this period increased trade with distant kingdoms and built strong fleets for overseas exploration. The Portuguese Empire, for example, established relations with the Kingdom of Siam in modern Thailand. The Portuguese fleet could travel the African continent and sail along the Asian coast to reach Siam. Portugal, which dominated the trade routes of the Indian Ocean, traded in precious spices. Around 1200, the Mali Empire emerged from ancient Ghana. Mali became a strong kingdom under the leadership of King Sundiata. The kingdom of Sundiata stretched from the Atlantic coast of modern Senegal and Mauritania to the interior of southeastern Mali. Like Ghana, the Mali Empire depended on trade routes across the Sahara. Unlike Ghana, this kingdom actually had its own gold mines within its borders.
One of the most important cities in the kingdom was the commercial center of Timbuktu in the modern nation of Mali. Timbuktu was for centuries the most important trading city on the edge of the Sahara and traded in gold, ivory, salt and slaves. Around the same time that tribes and small kingdoms were vying for parts of Europe, the African kingdoms of Ghana and Mali were among the strongest of the Middle Ages. The Ghana Empire, also known as the Wagadou Empire, was born around 790. It found success as an important shopping center. The Ghana Empire in present-day Mauritania and Mali was a kingdom located at the southwestern end of the Sahara. Caravans with hundreds of camels would travel across the Sahara like ships crossing a sandy sea. A sturdy build and a variety of sizes – from twin to king – easily hold tall adults and couples. The world`s first kingdoms developed thousands of years ago when rulers began to conquer and control cities and colonies. The rulers of the early kingdoms offered protection to their inhabitants or subjects. In return, subjects paid taxes or services to the monarch.
Kingdoms also had the power to create and enforce laws. The English word is of Germanic origin and historically refers to Germanic royalty, in pre-Christian times a kind of tribal royalty. The monarchies of Europe in the Christian Middle Ages derived their claim to Christianization and the divine right of kings, partly influenced by the concept of sacred kingship inherited from Germanic antiquity. The kingdom was originally a trading center for gold and salt. (Salt, a valuable food preservative, was almost as valuable as gold.) The trade in ideas also flourished in the kingdom as the religion of Islam spread west from the Arabian Peninsula to the west coast of Africa. The Ghanaian Empire was weakened and eventually collapsed due to rapid growth, drought and weakening trade. The English term king is derived from the Anglo-Saxon cyning, which in turn is derived from the Common Germanic *kuningaz. The Germanic term was borrowed very early in Estonian and Finnish and has survived in these languages as kuningas. It is derived from the term *kunjom “kin” (Old English cynn) by the suffix -inga-. The literal meaning is that of a “descendant of [noble] kinship” or perhaps “son or descendant of a noble relative” (OED). The slave might remind the king that he is just dust, but he is still the king.
Kingdoms are rarely ruled by an absolute monarch, a single king or queen who makes all the decisions for the entire state. Kingdoms are usually divided into smaller territories such as city-states or provinces, governed by officials reporting to the monarch. Most modern kings and queens do not control the government. Today`s elected rulers and constitutions establish laws for most kingdoms. A few thousand years later, the kingdom of Teotihuacan developed in North America. The kingdom was centered in the city of Teotihuacan in present-day Mexico City, Mexico. Teotihuacan probably had more than 100,000 inhabitants, making it one of the largest ancient kingdoms in the world at the time. A kingdom is a piece of land ruled by a king or queen.
A kingdom is often called a monarchy, which means that a person who usually inherits his position by birth or marriage is the head or head of state. The Kingdom of Siam has been exposed to European technology and politics. While some Asian kingdoms, such as Japan, rejected the influence of European powers, Siam used European ideas to modernize the country. Siam reached its peak under King Mongkut, who ruled from 1851 to 1868. King Mongkut helped found the kingdom`s first newspaper. King Mongkut also introduced the idea of free trade. The subjects of the kingdom could produce their own products such as rice or tea for trade with foreign companies. Throughout the European Middle Ages, European kingdoms experienced a general tendency towards centralization of power, so that by the end of the Middle Ages there were a number of great and powerful kingdoms in Europe that would become the great powers of Europe in the early modern period.
With the collapse of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, the feudal system placed kings at the top of a pyramid of relations between feudal lords and vassals, depending on the regional dominance of the barons and the intermediate positions of the counts (or counts) and dukes. The core of European feudal rule in the High Middle Ages was the territories of the former Carolingian Empire, i.e. the Kingdom of France and the Holy Roman Empire (centered on the nominal kingdoms of Germany and Italy).  In Europe, after the collapse of the Roman Empire in 476, many small kingdoms were formed and disputed by tribes. Tribes such as the Ostrogoths of present-day Romania and the Franks of modern Germany were among those who formed small, unstable kingdoms in the early Middle Ages. The Middle Ages was a period of history that lasted about 500 to 1500. It is also known as the Middle Ages. In the Middle Ages, countless kingdoms formed and collapsed in Europe, Asia and Africa. Currently, as of 2022 [update]), fifteen kings are recognized as heads of state of sovereign states (i.e.
the English king is used as the official translation of the monarchs` respective Indigenous titles). Some kingdoms are still ruled absolutely by a monarch. King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud of Saudi Arabia, King Mswati III of Swaziland and King Hassanal Bolkiah of Brunei are absolute monarchs. All these kingdoms have legislators and laws. The monarch remains the ultimate authority. After several centuries of war and turmoil, stronger and more difficult kingdoms began to develop all over the world. In Europe, the kingdoms of Portugal, France and England spread over vast territories after the discovery of America at the end of the fifteenth century. King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen, whose title is also given to the wife of a king. However, most of the kingdoms that exist today are constitutional monarchies.
The king or queen acts as a ceremonial head of state with public functions such as promoting tourism and interest in the nation`s history and culture, but without real political authority. Under a constitutional monarchy, the nation is governed by a constitution or set of laws executed by a president or prime minister elected by the citizens of the country. In England, for example, Queen Elizabeth II is the official head of state – but the nation is ruled by a prime minister and a parliament.